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Incidents and incident reports in 2018
15 March 2019 | przemyslawf | #annual report

Publication of our annual report is coming soon. Editing is moving forward at full speed, but in the meantime we’d like to share some statistics concerning 2018. This statistics provide a big bicture of an IT security landscape in Poland and as well conclusions about major trends in this area. For many years already CERT Polska has incorporated incident classification (now, the sixth version marked as mkVI)1, which defines pretty well different incident categories.

In 2018 operators of CERT Polska received 19439 incident reports. We carefully analyzed and categorized all of them. Among these reports, 5675 were the reason to register incident. Our team created 3739 security incidents, what gives on the average over 10 incidents created daily. The remaining a dozen or so reports not assigned to any incident were irrelevant or can be considered as automatic alerts sent from several alerting systems. In case of the latter our activities were connected with supplying our n6 platform2 and other analytic tools as well.

Often, one incident can be connected with many incident reports, e.g. three different entities report the same phishing site.

In the table below we present incidents handled by our team, divided into categories according to classification.

Category Incidents %
Abusive Content 431 11,53
Spam 419 11,21
Harmful Speech 5 0,13
Child/Sexual/Violence/… 0 0
Unclassified 7 0,19
Malicious Code 862 23,05
Virus 4 0,11
Worm 0 0
Trojan 117 3,13
Spyware 0 0
Dialer 1 0,03
Rootkit 1 0,03
Unclassified 739 19,76
Information Gathering 101 2,7
Scanning 80 2,14
Sniffing 1 0,03
Social Engineering 7 0,19
Unclassified 13 0,35
Intrusion Attempts 153 4,09
Exploiting of known Vulnerabilities 30 0,8
Login attempts 37 0,99
New attack signature 0 0
Unclassified 86 2,3
Intrusions 125 3,34
Privileged Account Compromise 11 0,29
Unprivileged Account Compromise 21 0,56
Application Compromise 35 0,94
Bot 4 0,11
Unclassified 54 1,44
Availability 49 1,31
DoS 7 0,19
DDoS 35 0,94
Sabotage 0 0
Outage (no malice) 1 0,03
Unclassified 6 0,16
Information Content Security 46 1,23
Unauthorised access to information 21 0,56
Unauthorised modification of information 13 0,35
Unclassified 12 0,32
Fraud 1878 50,23
Unauthorized use of resources 1 0,03
Copyright 8 0,21
Masquerade 43 1,15
Phishing 1655 44,26
Unclassified 171 4,57
Vulnerable 69 1,85
Open for abuse 14 0,37
Unclassified 55 1,47
Other 25 0,67

Table 1. Incidents handled by CERT Polska, divided into categories


In 2018 CERT Polska created 17,5% more incidents comparing to 2017. Most of them were categorized as phishing, malware or spam. According to the data from 2017 we observed slight change on the podium in that infamous ranking, because then the first three places went as follows: phishing, malware, intrusions. Proportion of phishing incidents remained on similar level comparing to 2017 and reached 44%, which was firmly dominant result above remaining categories. Most popular scenarios were connected with phishings on foreign servers targeting Polish financial institutions (mostly banks). Another popular scenarios were related to phishings targeting services like Netflix or PayPal served from compromised Polish servers. Leading theme behind those attacks was premium users’ credentials theft or simply stealing money from internet bank account. Many scenarios concerned also selling goods on advertisement websites at the attractive prices. Main objective of these operations was to persuade users to enter sensitive data on fake websites, impersonating online payment platforms like Dotpay or PayU.


impersonating online payments

Website impersonating online payment platform


In 2018 we also observed fake online shops business, which has been visibly developed by some actors. In last year number of incidents related to fake online shops tripled, comparing to 2017. At this point, we’d like to thank all users aware of this kind of threat, who report about such activities more often and more eagerly every year. Attackers tried to find as many victims as possible, e.g. by advertising their shops in social media and popular search engines, where they were optimizing their shops’ position on the list of search results.


an example of fake online shop

An example of a fake shop “offering” electronics at the attractive prices


The second most popular category of incidents was malware. It’s a broad category with many subcategories, but usually we marked incidents related to malware as “unclassified”. Firstly, because in many scenarios more than one malware family was used, incorporating variety of methods and attack techniques. Secondly, we registered significant number of incidents concerning ransomware, which unfortunately don’t have its own category in classification. In that aspect the classification isn’t perfect yet, but we hope that in the next revision it will be updated.

A vast number of malware incident reports was related to attacks on Polish users. Popular scenarios concerning emails with fake invoice, delivery details or claim for payment (or additional payment) continued spreading in different versions. These emails usually contained malicious attachment as a script, document with macros or link leading to some website distributing malware (e.g. banker or mobile banker app, depending on User-Agent HTTP header).


email with malicious attachment

Email with malicious attachment pretending to be an invoice


This year for the first time we publish classification of incidents divided into Polish economy sectors. You can find detailed information in the table below. At a glance significant number of incidents is marked as Other (3 out of 4 incidents were classified to this category). These were mostly incidents concerning individuals or private entities. Next places in the classification belong to banking sector and public administration. Total number of the latter was little, comparing to the Other category. We are aware that presented classification is far from ideal. However, we had created this classification before CERT Polska has been designated as one of the three national-level CSIRTs under National Cybersecurity System law. Now, when the law is in force, we’ll be able to specify categories of this classification to reflect security of different economy sectors in a better way.

Sector Incidents %
IT infrastructure 29 0,78
Public health care 13 0,35
Banking 643 17,2
Other financial institutions 62 1,66
Energy industry 20 0,53
Transport 51 1,36
Public administration 85 2,27
Water supply 2 0,05
Other 2834 75,8
Total 3739 100

Table 2. Incidents handled by CERT Polska divided into Polish economy sectors


More conclusions you’ll find in our annual report (coming soon). You’re warmly welcomed to follow CERT Polska’s blog and our profiles in social media to be up-to-date with latest news concerning publication of our report.